Pharmacodynamics winstrol side effects is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis orientalis, bactericidal effect on most of the microorganisms (in Enterococcus spp -. Bakgeriostaticheski). Blocks the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall in the area other than the one on which there are the penicillins and cephalosporins (not compete with them for binding sites), firmly contacting the D-alanyl-D-alanine portion of the cell wall precursor leading to cell lysis.
Active against gram-positive bacteria, including: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (including methicillin-resistant heterogeneous strains), Streptococcus spp, Enterococcus spp. . (including Enterococcus faecalis), Clostridium spp. (including Clostridium difficile). For in vitro vankomntsinu sensitive Listeria monocytogenes, bacteria genera Lactobacillus spp, Actinomyces spp, Bacillus spp …
Optimum action – at pH 8, by lowering the pH to 6 effect decreases sharply.
Active acts only on microorganisms which are in the reproductive stage. Resistant almost all non-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium spp., Fungi, viruses, protozoa. Has no cross-resistance with other antibiotics.
When used inside has no systemic action, acts locally on the sensitive microflora in the gastrointestinal tract (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile).
The maximum concentration (C max ) after intravenous infusion of 500 mg – 49 mg / ml at 30 min and 20 mg / ml in 1-2 hours; After intravenous infusion of 1 g – 63 g / ml after 60 minutes and 23-30 ug / ml in 1-2 hours Connection with the plasma protein -.. 55%
Therapeutic concentrations are determined in the ascites, synovial, pleural, pericardial and peritoneal fluids in urine, tissue atrial appendage. It does not cross the intact gematoentsefalnchesky barrier (in meningitis is detected in the CSF in therapeutic concentrations).
winstrol side effects crosses the placenta. Provided with breast milk. The half-life (T ½ ) with normal renal function: Adults – about. 6 hours (4-11 hours), newborns – 6-10 hours, breast detail – 4 hours, older children – 2-3 hours; T ½ in chronic renal failure (oliguria or anuria) in adults – 6-10 days. Repeated administration of accumulation possible. 75-90% of the drug is excreted by the kidneys by a passive filter in the first 24 hours. In patients with one kidney appears slowly and removal mechanism is unknown.
In small and moderate amounts of winstrol side effects can be excreted in bile. In small amounts appear in hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Poor adsorbed by ingestion and typically does not penetrate into the systemic circulation. Defined plasma concentrations of winstrol side effects may be celebrated in some cases with repeated oral route in patients with acute pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile.
The infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to winstrol side effects:
- lower respiratory infections (pneumonia, lung abscess);
- bone and joint infections (including osteomyelitis);
- Skin and soft tissue infections;
- In the form of oral solution:
- pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile;
- enterocolitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
: Hypersensitivity to winstrol side effects, neuritis of the auditory nerve, pregnancy (I trimester), lactation.
Patients with hearing impairments, kidney failure because of the possible development of ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects, patients allergic to teicoplanin (possibility of cross-allergy), pregnancy (II and III trimester).
Pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy (II-III trimester), the drug is prescribed only if the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
winstrol side effects is excreted in breast milk. For the period of the drug should stop breastfeeding.
Dosing and dose
winstrol side effects is administered as a slow intravenous infusion at a rate not exceeding 10 mg / min for at least 60 min. Concentration of winstrol side effects prepared solution should not exceed 5 mg / ml. Adults – 0.5 g or 7.5 mg / kg every 6 hours or 1 g or 15 mg / kg every 12 hours. Babies: neonates up to 7 days of life – an initial dose of 15 mg / kg body weight, followed by – 10 mg / kg every 12 hours; starting from the second week of life – 10 mg / kg every 8 hours; children from 1 month of age or older -. 10 mg / kg every 6 hours Patients with impaired renal excretory function requires correction dosing regimen based on the values of creatinine clearance (CC). The correction can be done by increasing the interval between doses, or by decreasing the single dose of the drug :
(ml / min)
|The dose of winstrol side effects||The interval between injections|
|80||1 g||12 h|
|80-50||1 g||1-3 days|
|50-10||1 g||3-7 days|
|less than 10||1 g||7-14 days|
(ml / min)
|winstrol side effects Dose
(mg / day)
This table can not be used to determine the dose at anuria. Such patients should be administered a starting dose of 15 mg / kg body weight for the rapid creation of therapeutic drug concentrations in serum.The dose required to maintain a stable concentration of the drug is 1.9 mg / kg / day. Patients with severe renal insufficiency, it is advisable to enter a maintenance dose of 250-1000 mg every few days.
If anuria recommended dose of 1 g every 7-14 days.
Once known only to the concentration of serum creatinine to calculate creatinine clearance, you can use the formula below:
|for men:||body weight (kg) × (140 – age (years))|
|72 × kontsenratsiya serum creatinine (mg / dl)|
|for women: the result is multiplied by 0.85.|
Solution for intravenous
solution for injection is prepared immediately prior to administration of the drug. For this purpose the vial with a dry, sterile dosage formulation 0.5 g, 10 ml, dosage 1 g – 20 ml of sterile water for injection (solution concentration of 50 mg / ml).
REQUIRED further dilution of the prepared solution.
The prepared solutions prior to administration of winstrol side effects to be further dilution to a concentration of less than 5 mg / ml. The required dose of winstrol side effects divorced as aforesaid, to be administered by intravenous infusion for at least 60 minutes.
The solvents may be used as a 5% solution of dextrose (glucose) for injection or 0.9% sodium chloride solution for injection: 0.5 g -. 100 ml for 1 g of -200 mL
prior to injection of the prepared solution for parenteral administration should be checked visually if possible, in the presence of solids and a color change.
The solutions prepared on the basis of 5% dextrose (glucose) or 0.9 % solution of sodium chloride, may be stored in a refrigerator (2-8 ° C) for 14 days, without significant loss of activity. The preparation of the solution for receiving inward and its use for the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, due to the use of antibiotics as well as for treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis drug appointed interior. The daily dose for adults – 0.5-2 g, divided into 3-4 receptions, for children – 40 mg / kg, divided into 3-4 receptions. The maximum daily dose for adults and children -2, the appropriate dose is dissolved in 30 ml of water and give it to the patient to drink or administered through a tube. To improve the taste of the solution to it is possible to add conventional gshschёvYe syrups. Duration of treatment – 7-10 days.
Side effects Postinfuzionnye reaction (due to the rapid introduction): anaphylactoid reactions (lowering blood pressure, heart failure, bronchospasm, dyspnea, skin rash, itching), the syndrome of “red man”, associated with the release of histamine (chills, fever, heart palpitations, flushing of the upper half of the body and face, spasm of the muscles of the chest and back). from the urinary system: renal toxicity (up to the development of renal failure) usually when combined with aminoglycosides or the appointment of more than 3 weeks in high concentrations, is manifested by increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentration; interstitial nephritis. On the part of the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, pseudomembranous colitis. From the senses: ototoxicity – hearing loss, vertigo, ringing in the ears. From the side of hematopoiesis: reversible neutropenia, transient thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Allergic reactions: fever, chills , eosinophilia, rash (including exfoliative dermatitis), malignant exudative erythema (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), toxic epidermapny necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome), vasculitis. Local reactions (in violation of the rules of the infusion): pain and tissue necrosis at the injection site phlebitis.
Overdose Symptoms: . Increased severity of side effects with the urinary system and sensory organs Treatment: symptomatic therapy. It recommended the introduction of liquid and control the plasma concentrations of winstrol side effects. To quickly remove the excess from the body hemofiltration winstrol side effects is more effective than hemodialysis.
Interaction with other drugs
Simultaneous intravenous administration of winstrol side effects and local anesthetics may appear erythematous rash and redness of skin facial veils in adults – a violation of intracardiac conduction.
With the simultaneous and / or sequential systemic or local application of other potentially ototoxic and / or nephrotoxic drugs (aminoglycosides , amphotericin B, aminosalicylic acid or other salicylates, capreomycin, carmustine, cyclosporine, “loop” diuretics, including ethacrynic acid, polymyxin B, cisplatin) require careful monitoring of possible development of these symptoms.
Kolestiramin reduces winstrol side effects activity at its reception inside. Ayatigistaminnye means meklozin, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes may mask symptoms Valium actions winstrol side effects (tinnitus, vertigo).
winstrol side effects solution has a low pH that may cause chemical or physical instability when mixed with other solutions. It should not be mixed with alkaline solutions.
The solutions of winstrol side effects and beta-lactam antibiotics are physically incompatible when mixed. The probability of precipitation increases with increasing concentration of winstrol side effects. It is necessary to adequately wash the intravenous system between antibiotic use data. In addition, it is recommended to reduce the concentration of winstrol side effects to 5 mg / ml or less.
Use in II-I1I trimester of pregnancy is possible only “for health reasons”.
The product is intended for use only in a hospital.
In applying the drug in infants and preterm infants should routinely monitor the concentration of winstrol side effects in the blood plasma.
The drug should be administered by infusion slowly ( not less than 60 min). Rapid administration (eg, within a few minutes), winstrol side effects may be associated with a pronounced reduction of blood pressure and, in rare cases, heart failure.
The incidence and severity of thrombophlebitis can be reduced by proper dilution of the original solution and the alternation of the injection site.
Prolonged use of winstrol side effects is necessary to conduct audiogram, monitored picture peripheral blood, kidney function (urinalysis, creatinine and urea nitrogen).
It is desirable to determine the serum concentration of winstrol side effects in patients with renal insufficiency in patients older than 60 years, since the high, lingering for a long time the concentration of drug in the blood may increase the risk of manifestations of the toxic effect of the drug (maximum concentration should not exceed 40 mg / mL, and the minimum – 10 mcg / mL, a concentration above 80 mg / ml are considered toxic). For patients with renal insufficiency dose of winstrol side effects should be individualized.
The lyophilisate for solution for infusion 0.5 g, 1 g
to 0.5 g of active substance in 10 ml capacity vials, 1 g of the active substance in 20 ml capacity vials.
1, 5 or 10 units with instructions for use placed in a pile of cardboard.
50 vials are placed in a box made of cardboard with instructions for use 5 for delivery in hospitals. injections for weight loss reviews hcg mixing supplies testosterone therapy