In vitro winstrol before and after generally is active against gram-positive bacteria, including: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (including heterogeneous methicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus agalactiae, viridans group, Streptococcus bovis and enterococci (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis); Clostridium difficile (eg, toxigenic strains involved in the development of pseudomembranous enterocolitis) and diphtheroids. Other microorganisms that are sensitive to winstrol before and after in vitro include Listeria monocytogenes, bacteria genera Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, Clostridium, and Bacillus.
There is evidence that in vitro, some isolated strains of staphylococci and enterococci are resistant to winstrol before and after.
The combination of winstrol before and after and aminoglycosides have synergistic in vitro against many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Group D, not belonging to the enterococci, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus bacteria group (Group viridans).
winstrol before and after is inactive in vitro against gram-negative bacilli, mycobacteria, and fungi.
In persons with normal renal function, repeated intravenous administration of 1 g of winstrol before and after (15 mg / kg) (infusion over 60 minutes) creates a mean plasma concentration of about 63 mg / L immediately after completion of infusion; over 2 hours after infusion the mean plasma concentrations are about 23 mg / l, and 11 hours after infusion – about 8 mg / L. Multiple infusions of 500 mg, administered for 30 minutes, creating average plasma concentration of about 49 mg / l after the infusion is complete; over 2 hours after infusion the mean plasma concentrations are about 19 mg / l, and 6 watches – about 10 mg / l. The plasma concentrations in multiple doses similar plasma concentrations after a single dose.
The average half-life of winstrol before and after from plasma is 4-6 hours in patients with normal renal function. About 75% of the administered dose of winstrol before and after is excreted in the urine due to glomerular filtration rate in the first 24 hours. The average plasma clearance of about 0.058 L / kg / h and the average renal clearance is about 0.048 L / kg / h. The renal clearance of winstrol before and after is fairly constant and provides its excretion by 70-80%. volume of distribution ranges from 0.3 to 0.43 l / kg. The drug is practically not metabolized. As shown ultrafiltration at winstrol before and after serum concentration of 10 mg / l to 100 mg / l, 55% of the winstrol before and after is detected in the bound state with the protein.
After intravenous administration of winstrol before and after hydrochloride is detected in the pleural, pericardial, ascites, synovial fluids in auricle tissue and in urine, and peritoneal fluid in concentrations that inhibit growth of microorganisms. winstrol before and after penetrates slowly into the cerebrospinal fluid. When meningitis drug penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid.
winstrol before and after crosses the placental barrier and into breast milk.
Renal dysfunction slows excretion of winstrol before and after. Patients with absent kidneys average half-life of 7.5 days.
Total systemic and renal clearance of winstrol before and after can be reduced in older patients as a result of natural slowing glomerular filtration.
Vankotsin ® effective as a monotherapy, or in combination with aminoglycosides for the treatment of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus viridans or S. bovis.In endocarditis caused by enterococci (eg, E. faecalis), vankotsin effective only in combination with aminoglycosides.
There is evidence that Vankotsin ® is effective in the treatment of endocarditis difteroidnogo. Vankotsin ® successfully used in combination with rifampicin, aminoglycosides, or both antibiotics in early endocarditis, caused S. epidermidis or diphtheroids, after the valve prosthesis.
In some cases Vankotsin ® is indicated for the prophylaxis of endocarditis.
- Bone and joint infections
- Infections of the lower respiratory tract
- Infections of the skin and soft tissues
winstrol before and after may also be used for infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms in cases of allergy to penicillin, intolerance or lack of response to treatment with other antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to winstrol before and after but resistant to other antimicrobial drugs.
- Pseudomembranous colitis – a solution for the reception inside (see “Dosage and Administration” section.).
- Installed hypersensitivity to winstrol before and after
- Neuritis of the auditory nerve
When hearing loss (including history), renal insufficiency, and in patients allergic to teicoplanin, since cross allergy cases have been reported.
Use during pregnancy and lactation
winstrol before and after safety when used in humans during pregnancy has not been investigated. Evaluation of the results of experimental studies in animals did not reveal any direct or indirect negative impact of winstrol before and after on the embryo or fetus, the course of gestation and peri- and postnatal development.
winstrol before and after should be administered to pregnant women only if the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. If necessary, the reception of the drug during breast-feeding, you should stop feeding for the duration of drug treatment.
Dosage and administration
When administered winstrol before and after recommended concentration is not more than 5 mg / ml and the introduction rate is not more than 10 mg / min. In patients who show fluid intake restriction may apply to the concentration of 10 mg / ml and injection speed not exceeding 10 mg / min. However, in the case of concentration increases the likelihood of side effects related to the infusion.
dose for patients with normal renal function is 2 g intravenously (500 mg every 6 hours or 1 g every 12 hours). Each dose should be administered at a rate not exceeding 10 mg / min or for at least 60 minutes. Age and obesity in a patient may require a dose change based on the conventional definition of winstrol before and after in serum.
The usual dose is 10 mg / kg intravenously every 6 hours. Each dose should be administered for at least 60 minutes.
Young children and babies
for newborns initial dose should be 15 mg / kg followed by 10 mg / kg every 12 hours during the first week of life. Starting from the second week of life -Every 8 hours before reaching the age of one month.The drug should be administered for at least 60 minutes. Driving winstrol before and after dosing in newborns is given in the following table.
Recommendations for dosing winstrol before and after in neonates
|VMNB and||chronological age||serum creatinine||Dose|
|(Week)||(Days)||Concentration (mg / dL) b||(Mg / kg)|
|<30||≤7||— in||15 every 24 hours|
|> 7||≤1,2||10 every 12 hours|
|30-36||≤14||— in||10 every 12 hours|
|> 14||≤0,6||10 every 8 hours|
|0.7-1.2||10 every 12 hours|
|> 36||≤7||— in||10 every 12 hours|
|> 7||≤0,6||10 every 8 hours|
|0.7-1.2||10 every 12 hours|
and VMNB = age since the beginning of pregnancy (fetal development age plus chronological age). b If the concentration of serum creatinine> 1.2 mg / dL, then apply an initial dose of 15 mg / kg every 24 h.in order to determine the dose for those patients no serum creatinine concentration is used as the indicator in this case is not informative or due to lack of information.
In such patients it is advisable to carry out careful monitoring of winstrol before and after serum concentrations.
Patients with impaired renal function, elderly patients and
patients with impaired renal function is necessary to individually select the dose. For the selection of winstrol before and after doses for this group of patients can be used serum creatinine. In elderly patients with winstrol before and after has a lower ride height and a larger volume of distribution. This group titration is expediently carried out on the basis of the concentration of winstrol before and after in serum. Premature babies and elderly patients a significant dose reduction may be necessary as a result of decreased kidney function, than it can be assumed. You should regularly monitor the concentration of winstrol before and after in serum. The below table shows the winstrol before and after dose depending on creatinine clearance.
|Table doses of winstrol before and after for patients with impaired renal function|
|Creatinine clearance ml / min||The dose of winstrol before and after mg / 24 hours|
This table can not be used to determine the dose at anuria. Such patients should be administered a starting dose of 15 mg / kg body weight for the rapid creation of therapeutic drug concentrations in serum.The dose required to maintain a stable concentration of the drug is 1.9 mg / kg / 24 hours. Patients with severe renal insufficiency, it is advisable to enter a maintenance dose of 250-1000 mg every few days.At the anuria recommended dose of 1 g every 7-10 days.
Preparations for the introduction of a solution for intravenous solution for injection is prepared immediately prior to administration of the drug. For this purpose the vial with a dry, sterile powder winstrol before and after added the required volume of water for injection to obtain a solution with a concentration of 50 mg / ml.
NEED FURTHER DILUTION prepared solution.
Prepared solutions prior to administration of winstrol before and after to be further dilution to a concentration of less than 5 mg / ml. The required dose of winstrol before and after divorced in the above manner, to be administered by fractional intravenous infusion for at least 60 minutes. As solvents can be used is 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride solution for injection. Before the introduction of the prepared solution to be visually checked for mechanical impurities and color change.
Preparation of the solution for oral
winstrol before and after can be administered orally for the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile-, due to the use of antibiotics, as well as for the treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis.Intravenous administration of winstrol before and after has no advantage in the treatment of these diseases. winstrol before and after is not effective when taken orally in the case of other types of infections. The appropriate dose may be formulated in 30 ml of water and to give the patient drink it or introduce gavage. To improve the taste of the solution to it can be added to conventional food syrups.
Body as a Whole: anaphylactoid reactions, hypersensitivity reactions.
Cardiovascular system: heart failure, hot flashes, decrease in blood pressure, shock (these symptoms are mainly associated with the rapid infusion of the drug).
Gastrointestinal tract: nausea, pseudomembranous colitis.
Blood system: agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia.
Effect on kidneys: interstitial nephritis, renal function tests change, impaired renal function.
Skin: exfoliative dermatitis, benign (IgA) dermatosis bubble, itching dermatosis, rash, syndrome of “red man”, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, vasculitis.
Senses: ototoxic effects.
A number of patients treated with winstrol before and after were observed symptoms of ototoxicity such as tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss. They may be transient or be permanent. Most of these cases occurred in patients who received excessive doses of winstrol before and after, with a history of hearing loss, or in patients receiving concomitant treatment with other drugs with possible development of ototoxicity such as aminoglycosides.
Other: chills, drug fever, tissue necrosis at the injection site, pain at injection site, thrombophlebitis.
During or shortly after infusion of winstrol before and after too rapid in patients may develop anaphylactoid reactions. The rapid introduction of the drug can also cause a syndrome of “red man”, redness of the upper body or pain and muscle spasm of the chest and back. After stopping the infusion of these reactions typically take place within 20 minutes, but sometimes can last up to several hours.
Overdose Treatment: Corrective therapy aimed at the maintenance of glomerular filtration. winstrol before and after is poorly removed during dialysis. There is evidence that the hemofiltration and hemoperfusion through polysulfone ion exchange resin leads to an increase in clearance of winstrol before and after.
Interaction with other drugs
Simultaneous intravenous administration of winstrol before and after and anesthetic marked erythema, histamine-like reddening of the skin and anaphylactoid reactions, blood pressure can reduce the risk of development or neuromuscular blockade. Introduction of winstrol before and after as a 60-minute infusion before administration of the anesthetic can reduce the occurrence of these reactions.
With simultaneous and / or sequential systemic or local application of other potentially ototoxic and / or nephrotoxic agents (aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, aspirin and other salicylates, bacitracin, capreomycin, carmustine, paromomycin, cyclosporine, loop diuretics, polymyxin B, cisplatin, ethacrynic acid ) is required to conduct a thorough monitoring of the possible development of ototoxicity symptoms (tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (increasing levels of serum creatinine and blood urea, hematuria, proteinuria, rash, eosinophilia, and eozinofiluriya).
Cholestyramine reduces the activity.
Antihistamines, meklozin, phenothiazines, thioxanthenes may mask symptoms Valium actions winstrol before and after (tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss).
Incompatibility. A solution of winstrol before and after has a low pH, which may cause physical or chemical instability when mixed with other solutions. It should not be mixed with alkaline solutions.
Solutions Vankotsina and beta-lactam antibiotics are physically incompatible when mixed. The probability of precipitation increases with increasing concentration of winstrol before and after. It is necessary to rinse the system between intravenous antibiotic use data. In addition, it is recommended to reduce the concentration of winstrol before and after to 5 mg / ml or less.
rapid introduction (eg, within a few minutes), winstrol before and after may be accompanied by a pronounced decrease in blood pressure and, in rare cases, cardiac arrest. winstrol before and after be administered as a divorced solution for at least 60 minutes to avoid adverse reactions associated with infusion.
Hematologic studies and monitoring of renal function . Patients receiving intravenous winstrol before and after, should be periodically carried out blood tests and monitoring of renal function.
Renal insufficiency. winstrol before and after should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency, as high, lingering for a long time the concentration of drug in the blood may increase the risk of toxic manifestations of the drug. For patients with renal insufficiency dose of winstrol before and after should be individualized.
Local reactions. winstrol before and after is an irritant, and thus entering of the drug in the surrounding tissue of the vessel can cause necrosis. Thrombophlebitis may occur, although the probability of their development can be reduced due to the slow introduction of solutions with a low concentration (2.5 – 5 g / l) and the alternation of the injection site.
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